Çatalhöyük History

Çatalhöyük is within the borders of Küçükköy, eleven kilometers north of Çumra district of Konya province in Turkey. British archaeologist James Mellaart (Ceyms Melart) initiated the first excavation in 1958. In Çatalhöyük excavations, important findings that shed light on the history of humanity were reached. Çatalhöyük, dating back 9 thousand years, is accepted as one of the largest and most crowded settlements of that period with a population of eight thousand.

Çatalhöyük ancient settlement is one of the oldest Neolithic settlements in the world. It is a very important place for Anatolian and world history. Because it changed almost everything we know about the lifestyle of early Neolithic communities. The striking features of Çatalhöyük are its size, the location of the houses and residences and the duration of the settlement. The modern first city.

Çatalhöyük Architectural Structure

Çatalhöyük is part of a huge ancient settlement. For now, only 5% of the settlement is thought to have been discovered. Çatalhöyük consists of two mounds, east and west. The eastern mound Between 7400 and 6200, there are 18 different layers of settlement. The remains of the western mound belong to the Chalcolithic period.

The residences or houses at Çatalhöyük have an interestingly similar construction style to the traditional one as we see it today. The only difference for Çatalhöyük is the layout of the settlement. Çatalhöyük houses were a living space/room with a flat roof and a single cellar with an area of ​​approximately 25 square meters. Each house had a stove, an oven and a bench. The room is also furnished with different materials such as wood for sleeping and sitting. Some of the blocks used to build the houses today are still intact today, despite the weather. The researchers thought that the burning in the city hardened the block, giving them resistance to weathering.

The houses were built on the same plan as adjacent to each other and with flat roofs. However, the walls of each house were separate, and there were no streets between the houses because the walls were adjacent. Each new house was built a little higher than the one next to it, and the entrance to the houses was provided by the doors opened on the roofs. People used the stairs installed on the roofs to enter and leave their homes. Mud brick, wood, clay and reed were used in the construction of their single-storey houses. The roofs are placed on adobe walls and wooden poles obtained from the forest south of the city. The roofs covered with reeds were covered with compressed clay soil and strengthened.

Çatalhöyük Archaeological Ruins

The people of Çatalhöyük plastered the inside of their house, which consists of two parts as a room and a warehouse, and painted it white, and then painted its walls. These paintings featured rug patterns, interlocking circles, stars and hunting scenes, and animals such as vultures, leopards, birds, and deer. On the floors of the houses, they laid mats made of grain straws and marsh reeds. On the other hand, they built benches and high platforms at the bottom of the walls to facilitate domestic life. They buried their dead under these platforms with tools made of bone, colored stones, cutting tools, stone axes, beads made of seashells.

Wooden vessels, boxes, jewelry made of bones, flint daggers and knives, and obsidian arrows and spearheads were found during the excavations. Among the materials found during the excavations, the most striking ones are the terracotta pots and the statues of the goddess of fertility. The superior craftsmanship and decorations in the finds indicate the existence of a developed understanding of art in Çatalhöyük.

Çatalhöyük Archaeological Ruins